1943 to 1945
300 kg amatol
Launch Platform: Do
The Ruhrstahl X-1 (Fritz X) was a glide bomb. Designed and
developed by Ruhrstahl
in 1943 under the leadership of Dipl.-Ing. Max
The Ruhrstahl X-1 was known by a number of different names,
Ruhrstahl SD 1400 X, Kramer X-1, PC 1400X, FX 1400, Fritz
X. This weapon was intended to be deployed against armored
ships such as heavy cruisers, battleships. Dipl.-Ing. Max
had been experimenting since early 1938, with
remote control freefalling bombs and in 1940. Kramer
The Ruhrstahl X-1 (Fritz X) had four centrally mounted stub
wings and the box shaped tail unit it also had a pointed nose
which greatly increased its aerodynamic properties. the preferred
release height for this missile was 5,500 m but it could be
released at a height of 4,000 m and released approximately
5 km from the target of course visibility needed to be good
as it was operator controlled via the Kehl-Straßburg
system, the Fritz X could penetrate 130 mm of armour plate.
The Ruhrstahl X-1 (Fritz X) was controlled by the operator
in the carrier aircraft using a radiolink Kehl-Straßburg
(designed and developed by Telefunken) the operator had to
keep the target in sight at all times, to aid the operator
in this a flare was ignited in the tail of the bomb so it
could be seen from the carrier aircraft. The launch platform
was a Do 217
however. It could be risky launching a Ruhrstahl X-1 (Fritz
X) because the carrier aircraft had to decelerate before launching
the missile as well as flying on a steady course right up
until the missile hit its target, which left the carrier aircraft
vulnerable to enemy fighters also there was a possibility
of the missile becoming subject to electronic countermeasures.
The Ruhrstahl X-1 (Fritz X) was first used operationally on
21 July 1943 by III./KG 100 flying Do
in a raid on Augusta harbor in Sicily
9 September 1943 the Ruhrstahl X-1 (Fritz X) was used against
the Italian naval fleet, after they signed the armistice with
the Allies. the Italian battleship Roma was hit and destroyed,
also her sistership a battleship, Italia was badly damaged.
11 September 1943 the Ruhrstahl X-1 (Fritz X) was used during
the invasion of Salerno and the light cruiser Savannah was
badly damaged also the Philadelphia suffered a near miss but
damage was still caused.
13 September 1943 the light cruiser HMS Uganda, was severely
damaged by a Ruhrstahl X-1 (Fritz X) missile.
16 September 1943. The British battleship HMS Warspite was
severely damaged by a Ruhrstahl X-1 (Fritz X) missile.
17 September 1943. The American light cruiser Philadelphia
was lightly damaged from near misses from a Ruhrstahl X-1
(Fritz X) missile.
The Warplanes of the Third Reich.
German Aircraft of the Second World War.
For a complete list of sources