1943 to 1945 First Flight:
8 March 1944 Manufacturer: EMW
Number built: Type:
Surface-to-Air Missile Guidance system:
radio controlled Length:
7.85 m Wingspan:
2.51 m Weight:
3,700 kg Engine:
1 × Mittelwerk rocket
engine producing up to kg of thrust Maximum speed:
25 km Warhead:
235 kg Fuze:
Proximity Launch Platform:
Mobile, Fixed Operators:
Luftwaffe Variants: Other:
The EMW Wasserfall (Waterfall) was a surface-to-air missile. Designed
and developed by Elektro
in 1943 under the leadership of Dipl.-Ing. Klaus
The Wasserfall (Waterfall). This weapon was
intended to be deployed against Allied bomber formations. Dipl.-Ing. Klaus
also developed the EMW
(Typhoon) surface-to-air missile system.
The Wasserfall (Waterfall)
was of a cylindrical shape with cruciform wings and control surfaces, and was
essentially the same shape as the A-4
) the rocket motor
used was 1 × Mittelwerk rocket engine producing up to kg of thrust which
was designed by Dipl.-Ing. Walter
. But because of the length of time, this weapon could be waiting to
be launched, the liquid oxygen and alcohol used for the A-4
) was unsuitable.
And so a new combination of fuel mixture was looked into however nothing was ever
finalised, but the fuels probably used were, (1) 10% to 15% aniline added for
rapid ignition, for Visol. (2) 90% nitric acid, 10% sulphuric acid, for Salbei.
There were several systems employed to control Wasserfall (Waterfall) surface
to air missile, radio control, using line of sight and a joystick, using a modified
Kehl-Straßburg (designed and developed by Telefunken) radio control system, Kogge-Brigg
radio control system, detonation was achieved by either remote control or by a
proximity fuse. The whole project was held up when Dipl.-Ing. Walter
was killed during heavy bombing at Peenemünde
in an operation codenamed Hydra. However Walter
was replaced by Dipl.-Ing. Martin
Testing began in March 1944 using the A-4
) to tests the control
components for the Wasserfall (Waterfall), between the 8 March 1944 and the 17
February 1945, when Peenemünde
was evacuated approximately 35 Wasserfall (Waterfall) missiles were launched.
Production of the Wasserfall (Waterfall) was supposed to have been in an underground
complex at Bleicherode, however, work on the underground complex was never started.
Manufacturing was due to begin in October 1945, with 50 missiles being produced
per month, gradually increasing to 900 a month by March 1946. There was much indecision
on how this weapon was to be deployed either as a mobile weapon using a modified
) Meillerwagen or to have fixed installations. The Wasserfall (Waterfall)
was never used operationally.
of the Third Reich.
German Aircraft of the Second
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